The Adolescents And Teenagers

Adolescence (Latin: to grow) is a period of life, during which the carefree child becomes the responsible adult. The modern description of adolescent is a ‘teenager’ (Age: 10-19yrs).

Puberty (Latin: adulthood) is a state of becoming functionally capable of procreation.
This is usually accepted as occurring at age of 12 years in girls and 14 years in boys.
Puberty is purely the first spell of adolescence and the remainder is being concerned with mental & emotional adaptation to sexual functions.
Phases of Pubertal Development
  • Thelarche-10-11yrs-breast budding
  • Adrenarche-11-12yrs-pubic & axillary hair development
  • Peak Height Velocity -12-13yrs
  • Menarche-13-14yrs-onset of menstruation
  • Mature Sexual Hair & Breast -14-15yrs
Counseling in Adolescents
  • Sex education
  • Anatomy & physiology of external & internal organs
  • They should be prepared for menstruation
  • Problems related to hygiene, sanitation, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
  • Dealing with psychosocial problems like depression, suicidal tendency, eating disorders (anorexia nervosa & bulimia)
Common Problems in Adolescents
  • Primary or secondary amenorrhea
  • Precocious & delayed puberty
  • Obesity
  • Cosmetic problems like acne & hirsutism
  • Puberty menorrhagia & other menstrual irregularities
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Adolescent intersex
  • Vaginal discharge
When to consult a gynecologist

Doctor Examining Pregnant Woman

  • Absence of menstruation by 16 years of age in presence of secondary sexual characteristics or by 14 years of age in, if secondary sexual characteristics have not developed.(Primary Amenorrhea)
  • Absence of menstruation for three normal cycles or for 6 months (secondary amenorrhea)
  • Onset of menstruation & other pubertal characters before 8 years of age
  • Blood loss > 80ml/cycle (> 3pads/day) cycles < 21 years or > 42 years
  • Bleeding lasts longer than 7 days
Vaccines in adolescent girls
  • Td (tetanus & diphtheria) – booster of 10 & 16 yrs of age
  • Hepatitis A – 0 dose & 6 wks, if not given earlier
  • Hepatitis B – 0, 1 & 6 months, if not given earlier
  • Varicella – 1st dose – < 13 yrs
  • 2nd& 3rd dose – > 13 yrs (4 or 6 wks interval)
  • MMR Vaccine – if not given earlier

OR

  • Rubella Vaccine
  • Vaccine for carcinoma of cervix – should be given before first intercourse; ideal candidates are adolescent girls